Set # 102
Ruddy turnstones engage in a variety of behaviours to locate and capture prey. These behaviors can be placed into six general categories:
Routing — The turnstone manipulates piles of seaweed through flicking, bulldozing, and pecking to expose small crustaceans or gastropod molluscs hidden underneath.
Turning stones — As suggested by its name, the turnstone flicks stones with its bill to uncover hidden littorinids and gammarid amphipods.
Digging — With small flicks of its bill, the turnstone creates holes in the ground substrate (usually sand or mud) and then pecks at the exposed prey – often sand-hoppers or seaweed flies.
Probing — The turnstone inserts its bill more than a quarter-length into the ground to get at littorinids and other gastropods.
Hammer–probing — The turnstone cracks open its prey’s shell by using its bill as a hammer, and then extracts the animal inside through…
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